United States copyright laws protect printed works, photographs, audio and video productions, art, music, software, and most of what you find in the library and on the Internet. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) of 1998 amends the U.S. Copyright Act (1976), strengthening rights for copyright owners. The law grants broad rights to copyright owners, reserving to them the right to make and distribute copies. Thus librarians and educators are often in conflict with these rights in the normal course of our work. Whenever we copy, scan or download protected material to make it available to others electronically, copyright issues arise. The primary "exception" to these rights is "fair use."