University of Southern Indiana

Faculty Research

Manfen Chen
Dr. Manfen Chen
Associate Professor of Finance
Chair of Accounting and Finance
Contact: 812-461-5333
Business and Engineering Center 2057

Website


Refereed Articles

  • Yang, J., Chen, M., & Lim, S. (2019). Does the regulation change play a role in the dividend policy?: Empirical study of REITs. Global Business & Finance Review, 24 (4), 63-75, doi: 10.17549/gbfr.2019.24.4.63.
  • Smothers, J., Moore, A., Maier-Lytle, J., Bačić, D., & Chen, M. W. (2019). Engaging students through activity design: A service-dominant logic perspective. Journal of the Academy of Business Education.
  • Celuch, K., Bačić, D., Chen, M., Maier-Lytle, J., & Smothers, J. (2018). The Potential of Student Co-Creation in Extracurricular Experiences. Marketing Education Review, 28 (1), 1-19, doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/10528008.2017.1419432.
  • Khieu, H. D., Chen, M. W., & Pyles, M. K. (2014). Large Investments, Financial Constraint, and Capital Structure. Quarterly Journal of Finance and Accounting, 51 (3 & 4), 71-106.
  • Hsiao, W., Chen, M. W., & Hu, H. (2013). Assessing Online Discussion:Adoption of Critical Thinking as a Grading Criterion. The International Journal of Technology, Knowledge, and Society, 9 (3), 15-25.
  • Elkhal, K., & Chen, M. W. (2013). Stock Return Predictability and Economic Value of Market Timing. Journal of Financial and Economic Practice, 13 (1), 20-37.
  • Zhu, J., Chen, M. W., & Li, W. (2009). Recent Changes in the Prime Rate Behavior. Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, 33, 177-192.
  • Kim, D., Song, I., & Chen, M. W. (2009). The Influence of Managerial Incentives and a Firm's Multinationality on Corporate Reorganization. Global Business & Finance Review, 14, 65-76.
  • Shifflet, M., Williams, M., Chen, M. W., & Mahoney, T. (2009). Gender Differences in the Mutual Fund Industry. Journal of Financial and Economic Practice, 35-44.
  • Chen, M. W., Christie-David, R., & Moore, W. T. (2007). Deregulation, News Releases, and Price Discovery. Journal of Regulatory Economics, 31, 289-312.
  • Chen, M. W., & Zhu, J. (2007). An Empirical Investigation of Volatility Clustering within Industries. American Journal of Business, 22 (2), 33-43.
  • Lai, C., & Chen, M. W. (2006). Economic Conditions and Macroeconomic News Impacts on Standard and Poor's 500 Index Returns. Journal of Academy of Business and Economics, VI (1), 95-103.
  • Chen, M. W., & Zhu, J. (2005). Do Investors in Chinese Stock Market Overreact? Journal of Accounting and Finance Research, 13 (3), 17-25.

Refereed Proceedings
Full Paper

  • Hsiao, W., & Chen, M. W. (2012). Faculty adoption of critical thinking as a grading criterion in online discussions. E-Learn 2012 - sponsored by the Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education.

Presentation of Refereed Papers
International

  • Chen, M. W. & Hsiao, W. (2019). Institutional Policy and Distance Learning. International Conference on Technology, Knowledge & Society, Barcelona, Spain.
  • Chen, M. W. & Hsiao, W. (2019, March). Online Exam Policy and Procedure in Higher Education. Technology, Knowledge & Society, Barcelona, Spain.
  • Hsiao, W. & Chen, M. W. (2012, October). Faculty adoption of critical thinking as a grading criterion in online discussions. E-Learn - sponsored by the Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Montreal, QC, Canada.
  • Zhu, J., Chen, M. W., & Li, W. (2009). Recent Changes in the Prime Rate Behavior. Eastern Finance Association, Washington, District of Columbia.
  • Elkhal, K. & Chen, M. W. (2008, April). The Economic Value of Market Timing: Further Evidence. Midwest Business Administration Association, Chicago, Illinois.
  • Chen, M. W. & Zhu, J. (2006, May). Volatility of Equity Return and Industry Characteristics: Evidence from Manufacturing, Banking and Real Estate Industries. Hawaii International Conference on Business, Honolulu, Hawaii.
  • Chen, M. W., Christie-David, R. A., & Moore, W. T. (2004, October). Deregulation, News Releases, and Price Discovery. Financial Management Association, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Presentation of Non-Refereed Papers
International

  • Hsiao, W. & Chen, M. W. (2012, October). Using iPad Effectively in Higher Education. E-Learn - sponsored by the Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Local

  • Bačić, D., Celuch, K., & Chen, M. W. (2017, January). The Potential of Student Co-creation in Extra-curricular Experiences and Engagement Outcomes. USI Celebration of Teaching and Learning Symposium, Evansville, Indiana.
  • Khieu, H., Chen, M. W., & Phan, H. (2012, January). Overinvestments, cash flow sources, and firm value: Evidence from U.S. manufacturing firms. USI College of Business Research Colloquium, Evansville, Indiana.
Khaled Elkhal
Dr. Khaled Elkhal
Associate Professor of Finance
Contact: 812-464-1721
Business and Engineering Center 2049

Website


Refereed Articles

  • Elkhal, K. (2019). Business uncertainty and financial leverage: should the firm double up on risk? Managerial Finance.
  • Elkhal, K., & Mujumdar, S. (2014). There Should be No Cap on the Amount of Subordinated Debt: William Poole is Right! Journal of Applied Economics and Business, 22 (4).
  • Alhenawi, Y., & Elkhal, k. (2013). Financial Literacy of U.S. Households: Knowledge vs. Long-Term Financial Planning. Financial Services Review: Journal of Individual Financial Management.
  • Elkhal, K., & Chen, M. (2013). Stock Return Predictability and Economic Value of Market Timing. Journal of Financial and Economic Practice.
  • Valentine, G., Mujumdar, S., & Elkhal, k. (2012). Using Entertainment (Movies, Music, and TV) to Teach Economics. Business Education Forum, 67 (1), 40-42, 50.
  • Darrat, A. F., Elkhal, K., & Al-Khateeb, F. B. (2010). Explaining Growth in an Emerging Market. Global Business & Finance Review, 15 (1), 79-89.
  • Elkhal, K., Darrat, A. F., & Yousef, T. M. (2008). Revisiting the (In) Efficiency of Emerging Stock Markets. Global Business & Finance Review, 13 (2), 11-29.
  • Al-Khateeb, F. B., Darrat, A. F., & Elkhal, K. (2007). The UAE Growth Surge: Have Information Technology and Human Capital Contributed? Studies in Economics and Finance (Studies in Economic Analysis), 24 (4), 297-306.
  • Cochran, J., Darrat, A., & Elkhal, K. (2006). On the Bankruptcy of Internet Companies: An Empirical Inquiry. Journal of Business Research, 59 (10-11), 1193-1200.
  • Darrat, A., Elkhal, K., & McCallum, B. (2006). Finance and Macroeconomic Performance: Some Evidence for Emerging Markets. Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, 42, 5-28.
  • Abosedra , S., Elkhal, K., & Al-Khateeb, F. (2006). Forecasting Performance of Natural Gas Futures Market: An Assessment of Recent Data. Journal of Business and Economics Research, 4 (11), 65-69.
  • Aly , H., Kandil, M., & Elkhal, K. (2006). Government Size and Monetary Policy: Interactions and Productivity in the Economies of GCC Countries. Savings and Development, 4, 381-414.
  • Elkhal, K., Shelor, R., & Cross, M. (2004). January Return Seasonality in the U.S. Insurance Industry. Journal of Insurance Issues, 27, 123-133.
  • Darrat, A., Elkhal, K., Banerjee, G., & Zhong, M. (2004). Why do US Banks Borrow from the Fed? A Fresh Look at the 'reluctance' Phenomenon. Applied Financial Economics, 14, 477-484.
  • Darrat, A., Elkhal, K., & Hakim, S. (2000). On the Integration of Emerging Stock Markets in the Middle East. Journal of Economic Development, 25, 119-129.

Presentation of Refereed Papers
International

  • Alhenawi, Y. & Elkhal, K. (2018). Resurrection of Capital Asset Pricing Models: A Practical Test with Active Management Approach. Financial Management Association, San Diego, California.
  • Elkhal, K. (2018). Business Uncertainty and Financial Leverage: Should the Firm Double Up on Risk? MBAA-International Annual Meeting, Chicago, Illinois.
  • Elkhal, K. & Chen, M. (2008, April). Economic Value of Market Timing: Further Evidence. Academy of Business Economics, Chicago, Illinois.
  • Elkhal, K., Darrat, A., & Yousef, T. (2005, November). Revisiting the (In) Efficiency of Emerging Stock Markets. Southern Finance Association , Key West, Florida.
  • Darrat, A., Elkhal, K., & Hakim, S. (2001, October). On the Integration of Emerging Stock Markets in the Middle East. Financial Management Association, Toronto, Canada.

National

  • Alhenawi, Y. & Elkhal, k. (2013, October). Financial Literacy of U.S. Households: Knowledge vs. Long-Term Financial Planning. Academy of Financial Services, Chicago, Illinois.
  • Elkhal, K. & Mujumdar, S. (2009, December). Market (In) discipline of Subordinated Debt: Does Size Matter? International Governance and Financial Markets, Hammamet, Tunisia.
  • Elkhal, K. & Mujumdar, S. (2009, March). Use of Subordinated Debt in Bank Supervision: A New Look! Academy of Business Economics, Chicago, Illinois.
  • Elkhal, K., Christie-David, R., & Cochran, J. (2003, December). The Survival of Internet Companies: An Examination using the Hazard-Model. Southern Finance Association , Charleston, South Carolina.

Regional

  • Alhenawi, Y. & Elkhal, K. (2019). Resurrection of Capital Asset Pricing Models: A Convergence Test. Academy of Finance, Chicago, Illinois.

Research Grants
Funded

  • 2008: Elkhal, K. & Mujumdar, S., The R. Malcolm Koch Memorial Fellowship.
  • 2007: Elkhal, K. & Chen, M., The Lilly Endowment Inc. Fellowship.
Jong Rhim
Dr. Jong Rhim
Professor of Finance
Contact: 812-465-1637
Business and Engineering Center 2067

Website


Refereed Articles

  • Heo, S. W., Cashel-Cordo, P., Rhim, J. C., & Kang, J. G. (2017). Pricing Accuracy of Put-Option Valuation Models: Directional Bias Due to Risk Free Interest Rates. Journal of Accounting and Finance, 17 (5), 44-51.
  • Min, B. S., Cashel-Cordo, P., & RHIM, J. C. (2015). Corporate Leverage Strategy in an Emerging Market. Global Business & Finance Review, 20 (2), 35-48.
  • Heo, S. W., Rhim, J. C., Cashel-Cordo, P., & Kang, J. G. (2015). American Put Option Price using Quadratic Approximations of the Fractional Black-Scholes Partial Differential Equation. Journal of Accounting and Finance, 15 (8), 48-61.
  • Rhim, J. C., Brajcich, A. M., & Friesner, D. L. (2014). Measuring Agency Costs in the Presence of Incidental Truncation: Empirical Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing Firms. Global Business & Finance Review, 19 (1), 45-60.
  • Min, B. S., Mujumdar, S., & Rhim, J. C. (2011). Bilateral Investment Treaties for Foreign Direct Investment. Global Business & Finance Review, 16 (1), 75-87.
  • Kim, Y. H., Rhim, J. C., & Friesner, D. (2007). Interrelationships among Capital Structure, Dividends and Ownership: Evidence from South Korea. Multinational Business Review, 15 (3).
  • Min, B. S., Rhim, J. C., Friesner, D., & Cashel-Cordo, P. (2007). On the Behavior of Global Multinational Enterprises during the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis. Journal of Economic Development and Business Policy, 1, 52-89.
  • Kim, Y. H., Rhim, J. C., & Chotigeat, T. (2006). Interrelationships among Debt, Investment, and Dividend Policies: Evidence from South Korea. Journal of Financial and Economic Practice, 7 (1), 42-53.
  • Rhim, J. C., Peluchette, J. V., & Song, I. (2006). Stock Market Reactions and Firm Performance Surrounding CEO Succession: An Empirical Investigation of Antecedents of Succession and Successor Origins. Mid-American Journal of Business, 21 (1), 21-30.
  • Kim, Y. H., Lee, G., Rhim, J. C., & Kang, J. (2006). The Causality Among South Korean Firms' Earnings, Dividend Policy, and Investment Decision. Global Business & Finance Review, 11 (2), 21-30.
  • Byoun, S., & Rhim, J. C. (2005). Tests of the Pecking Order Theory and the Tradeoff Theory of Optimal Capital Structure. Global Business & Finance Review, 10 (2), 1-16.
  • Kim, Y. H., Rhim, J. C., & Kang, J. G. (2005). Agency Costs and Corporate Financial Policies: A Simultaneous Equations Approach. Journal of Business and Economics Research, 75-86.
  • Khayum, M. F., Rhim, J. C., & Ramaya, K. (2003). Contagion Effects of the Asian Financial Crisis: Regional or Global in Scope? Global Business & Finance Review, 8 (1), 1-18.
  • Khayum, M. F., Rhim, J. C., & Schibik, T. J. (2003). The Application of Cointegration to Advertising and Sales. Journal of Business Economics Research, 4 (1 & 2), 98-107.
  • Rhim, J. C. (2003). The Effects of Interest Rate Levels and Volatility on Maturity Intermediation Decision. Global Business & Finance Review, 39-49.
  • Wade, D., Rhim, J. C., & Ryu, T. G. (2001). The Effect of Firm-Specific Characteristics on the Choice of Accounting Methods: The Case of Nonpension Postretirement Benefits Accounting (SFAS No. 106). Business and Economic Review, 15 (1), 1-17.
  • Rhim, J. C., & Hongshik, K. (2000). An Estimation of Early Exercise Premium for American Put Options. Global Business & Finance Review, 13-30.
  • Rhim, J. (2000). An Examination of Accounting Event Studies: Methodology and Research Issues. Journal of Accounting and Finance Research, 26-35.
  • Rhim, J. (2000). Improvement Opportunity in Employer-Employee Relationship: A DSS Application for Small Business. Journal of Accounting and Finance Research, 16-23.
  • Rhim, J. (2000). The Resolution of Agency Problems Through Shareholder Activism: Managerial Guidelines. Journal of Accounting and Finance Research, 16-26.
  • Rhim, J. (1999). An Analysis of Variations in Capital Asset Utilization. Journal of Financial and Strategic Decisions, 23-31.
  • Rhim, J. (1999). Forecasting Performance of Exchange Rate Models: A Comparison of Error Size and Directional …. Global Business & Finance Review, 61-68.
  • Rhim, J. (1999). Stock Market Reactions to the Adoption Announcement of SFAS No. 106: An Empirical Investigation…. Business and Economic Review, 52-66.
  • Rhim, J. (1997). Adjustment to the Optimal Investment Level: An Empirical Investigation. Journal of Accounting and Finance Research, 58-65.
  • Rhim, J. (1997). Adoption of a Cafeteria Plan: Tax-Created Positive-Sum Opportunity. Journal of Accounting and Finance Research, 69-76.
  • Rhim, J. (1997). An Empirical Investigation of Put Option Pricing: A Specification Test of At-The-Money Option …. Journal of Financial and Strategic Decisions, 75-83.
  • Rhim, J. (1997). Deviations from PPP among Pacific Rim Countries: A Vector Autoregressive Analysis. Global Business & Finance Review, 43-50.
  • Rhim, J. (1996). AACSB Accreditation: A Positive Signal in Accounting Job Markets. Mid-Atlantic Journal of Business.
  • Rhim, J. (1996). Causes of Deviations from Purchasing Power Parity. Multinational Business Review.
  • Rhim, J. (1996). Empirical Distributions of Foreign Exchange Rates Under the Floating Exchange Rate Regime. Global Business & Finance Review.
  • Rhim, J. (1995). A Specification Test of At-the-Money Option Implied Volatility Recovered from the Black-Scholes …. Kentucky Journal of Economics and Business.
  • Rhim, J. (1994). Capital Structure Management as A Contributing Motivation for Calling Convertible Debt. Journal of Financial Research.
  • Rhim, J. (1994). Composite Forecasts of Inflation: An Improvement in Forecasting Performance. Journal of Economics and Finance.

Refereed Proceedings
Full Paper

  • Rhim, J., Cashel-Cordo, P., & Khayum, M. (2005). The Relationship Between R & D Expenditures and Firm Performance. Midwest Business Economic Association.

Presentation of Refereed Papers
International

  • Rhim, J. C. (2018, June). Environmental Correctness. World Conference on Business and Management, Jeju, Republic of Korea.
  • Heo, S. W., Rhim, J. C., & Cashel-Cordo, P. (2018, May). THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A PREDICTOR-CORRECTOR TECHNIQUE IN EUROPEAN CURRENCY OPTION VALUATION. Pan-Pacific Business Association, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
  • Rhim, J. C. (2016, June). Environmental Management and Financial Performance. World Conference on Business and Management, Danag, Viet Nam.
  • Rhim, J. C. & Cashel-Cordo, P. (2015, July). Managerial Behavior of Multinational Corporations around Global Financial Crisis. World Conference on Business and Management, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
  • Rhim, J. C. (2015, June). EVA as a Measure for Managerial Incentive Compensation. Pan-Pacific Business Association, Hanoi, Viet Nam.
  • Heo, S. W., Rhim, J. C., & Cashel-Cordo, P. (2014). Valuation of European-Style Options Traded in Tokyo Stock Exchange using Fractional Black-Scholes with Various Estimates of Hurst Parameters. Pan-Pacific Business Association, Sakai City, Japan.
  • Rhim, J. C. (2013, July). Interrelationships among Capital Structure, Dividends and Ownership. 2013 Global Business and Technology Association, Helsinki, Finland.
  • Min, B. S., Rhim, J. C., & Cashel-Cordo, P. (2012, November). Mitigation of Agency Conflicts: South Korean Board Reforms. Association for Global Business, United States, District of Columbia.
  • Min, B., Rhim, J. C., & Cashel-Cordo, P. (2012, May). A Study on the Corporate Governance Reform in Korea. Pan-Pacific Conference XXIX, Haikou, China.
  • Heo, S. W. & Rhim, J. C. (2011). An Estimation of American Put Option Price using Quadratic Approximations to the Fractional Black-Scholes Partial Differential Equation. Pan-Pacific Business Association, Daejeon, Korea.
  • Rhim, J. C. (2009). Volatility and Spillover Effects Between the US and Asia-Pacific Equity Markets during the IT and Subprime Booms and Busts. Pan-Pacific Business Association, Shenzhen, China.
  • Rhim, J. C., Chen, M., & Friesner, D. (2008, June). Simultaneity of Making Financial Decisions: An Empirical Evidence of Chinese Firms. Pan-Pacific Business Association, San Jose, Costa Rica.
  • Kim, Y. H., Lee, G., & Rhim, J. C. (2006, May). The Causality of Firms' Earnings, Dividends, and Investment Decisions in South Korea. Pan-Pacific Business Association, Busan, Korea.
  • Rhim, J. (1997, June). Investor Response to Exchange Rate Volatility: The Role of Appropriate Forecast. World Business Congress, Junju, Korea.

National

  • Kang, S. M., Heo, S. W., & Rhim, J. C. (2020). Market Risks and the Cross Section of Expected Returns in Foreign Exchange Markets. Academy of Business Economics, Chicago, Illinois.
  • Heo, S. W., Rhim, J. C., & Cashel-Cordo, P. (2017, March). An Estimation of Foreign Currency Option Pricing Using Fractional Black-Scholes Models. Academy of Business Economics, Chicago, Illinois.
  • Heo, S. W., Rhim, J. C., & Cashel-Cordo, P. (2016). A Study of Pricing Bias in Fractional Black-Scholes Quadratic Approximations Model with Respect to Interest Rates. Academy of Business Economics, Chicago, Illinois.
  • Rhim, J. C., Cashel-Cordo, P., & Heo, S. (2015, March). CORPORATE GOVERNANCE REFORM IN SOUTH KOREA AFTER ASIAN FINANCIAL CRISIS. Academy of Business Economics, Chicago, Illinois.
  • Heo, S. W. & Rhim, J. C. (2014, March). Option Valuation Based on Fractional Brownian Motion Models with Various Estimates of Hurst Parameters. Academy of Business Economics, Chicago, Illinois.
  • Heo, S. W., Rhim, J. C., & Cashel-Cordo, P. (2013, March). An Accuracy Test of Analytic Approximation of American Put Option Models. Academy of Business Economics, Chicago, Illinois.
  • Heo, S., Rhim, J. C., & Cashel-Cordo, P. (2012, March). An Estimation of Early Exercise Premium on American Put Options: Quadratic Approximation of Fractional Black-Scholes Partial Differential Equation. MBAA International, Chicago, Illinois.
  • Heo, S. W. & Rhim, J. C. (2011). Valuation of American Approximation Models with Different Time-Series Historical Volatilities Adopting Fractional Brownian Motion. Academy of Business Economics, Chicago, Illinois.
  • Rhim, J. C. & Mujumdar, S. (2009). Do the Effects of Bilateral Investment Treaties on FDI Differ between Countries? International Business and Economics Research Conference, Las Vegas, Nevada.
  • Rhim, J. C. (2007, February). Simultaneity of Making Financial Decisions. American Society of Business and Behavioral Sciences, Las Vegas, Nevada.
  • Rhim, J. C., Heo, S., & Cashel-Cordo, P. S. (2006, February). An Estimation of Early Exercise Premium for Pharmaceutical American Index Put Options. American Society of Business and Behavioral Sciences, Las Vegas, Nevada.
  • Rhim, J. (2002, October). Tests of the Pecking Order Theory and the Tradeoff Theory of Optimal Capital Structure. Financial Management Association, San Antonio, Texas.
  • Rhim, J. (2002, February). Maturity Intermediation Decision of Commercial Banks. American Society of Business and Behavioral Sciences, Las Vegas, Nevada.
  • Rhim, J. (1999, December). An Examination of Accounting Event Studies. American Academy of Accounting and Finance, New Orleans, Louisiana.
  • Rhim, J. (1998, December). The Resolution of Agency Problems through Shareholder Activism. American Academy of Accounting and Finance, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Regional

  • Rhim, J. C., Heo, S., & Williams, M. R. (2006, March). An Estimation of Early Exercise Premium for S&P 100 American Index Put Options. Academy of Business Economics, Chicago, Illinois.
  • Rhim, J. (2003, March). Financial Characteristics of Institutional Investor Common Stockholdings in the Korean Stock Market. Midwest Business Economic Association, Chicago, Illinois.
  • Rhim, J. (2002, March). Valuation of Index Options: A Numerical Analysis of S&P 500 Index Call. Midwest Business Economic Association, Chicago, Illinois.
  • Rhim, J. (2001, March). The Contributions of Asian Stock Markets to Global Market Risk Before and After the Asian Crisis. Midwest Business Administration Association, Chicago, Illinois.
Jinsuk Yang
Dr. Jinsuk Yang
Assistant Professor of Finance
Contact: 812-465-7120
Business and Engineering Center 2079

Website


Refereed Articles

  • Yang, J., Cashel-Cord, P., & Kang, J. (in press, 2020). Empirical Research on Herding Effects: Case of Real Estate Markets. Journal of Accounting and Finance, 20 (2).
  • Yang, J., Chen, M., & Lim, S. (2019). Does the regulation change play a role in the dividend policy?: Empirical study of REITs. Global Business & Finance Review, 24 (4), 63-75, doi: 10.17549/gbfr.2019.24.4.63.
  • Heo, S., Yang, J., Lim, S., & Cashel-Cordo, P. (2019). The Effectiveness of a Predictor-corrector Technique in European Currency Option Valuation. Global Business & Finance Review, 24 (4), 1-7, doi: 10.17549/gbfr.2019.24.4.1.
  • Zhang, Y., & Yang, J. (2016). Means of Payment in Mergers & Acquisitions: the Effect on Analyst Recommendations. Journal of Business and Policy Research, 11 (2), 45-64, doi: 10.21102/jbpr.2016.12.112.03.

Presentation of Refereed Papers
International

  • Yang, J., Kang, S., Heo, S., & Rhim, Jong C. (2019). Market risks and the cross section of expected returns in foreign exchange markets. Midwest Business Administration Association, Chicago, Illinois.
  • Yang, J., Rhim, J., & Kang, J. (2019, October). Informativeness of Sell Recommendation. Academy of Business Research Conference, San Antonio, Texas.

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